Binoculars and Telescopes Online
This text describes the theory and practice of optical mineralogy in terms useful to all practitioners from the beginning student to the professional in field and laboratory geology and industrial and environmental mineralogy. The author's aim is to provide the simplest possible access to the most powerful techniques of optical crystal identification. The book emphasizes useful practical theoretical material and methods for studying both thin sections of rocks and immersion of mineral grains in refractive index liquids. It contains original research results found in no other text. A major goal of the text is to allow precise determination of refractive index and the essential composition of crystals belonging to important mineral groups such as olivine, feldspar, and pyroxene. New methods for achieving this are developed for both white light and colored light of variable wavelength. Among the book's unique features is the color fringe chart developed by Prof. Morse for estimating both the direction and degree of mismatch between the refraction index of a crystal and that of the surrounding liquid medium in the immersion method. Further, a new algebraic treatment of the dispersion method allows a high precision of match between crystal and liquid. An original classification of interference figures aids crystal identification. Worked examples of refractive index determination and crystal identification are given for each optical class of crystals. The optic orientation of optically biaxial crystals is illustrated with examples from each crystal system portrayed in stereographic projection. Principles and applications of crystal identification with the dispersion method are developed in a separate chapter. The final chapter is a practical, step-by-step guide to crystal identification in thin section or immersion. An identification table for the most common asbestos minerals, including the dispersion staining method used by most environmental laboratories.
Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Analysis in the Electron Microscope provides an in-depth description of X-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope. It is sufficiently detailed to ensure that novices will understand the nuances of high-quality EDX analysis. It includes information about hardware design as well as they physics of X-ray generation, absorption and detection, and most post-detection data processing. Details on electron optics and electron probe formation allow the novice to make sensible adjustments to the electron microscope in order to set up a system that optimises analysis. It also helps the reader determine which microanalytical method is most suitable for their planned application.
Scientific literacy is generally valued and acknowledged among educators as a desirable student learning outcome. However, what scientific literacy really means in terms of classroom practice and student learning is debatable due to the inherent complexity of the term and varying expectations of what it means for learning outcomes. To date the teacher voice has been noticeably absent from this debate even though the very nature of teacher expertise lies at the heart of the processes which shape students' scientific literacy. The chapters that comprise this book tap into the expertise of a group of primary teachers from Our Lady of Good Counsel (OLGC), a primary school that chose to actively engage in teaching for scientific literacy. By analyzing the insights and thinking that emerged as they attempted to unravel some of the pedagogical complexities associated with constructing an understanding of scientific literacy in their own classrooms, these teachers demonstrate the professional knowledge and skill inherent in the expertise of teaching and learning science in a primary classroom. The chapters in this book illustrate the processes and structures that were created at OGLC to provide the conditions that allowed these teachers to explore and build on the range of ideas that informed their approach to teaching for scientific literacy. This book is a compelling example of how a whole school approach to scientific literacy can make a difference for students' learning of science and offer a concrete example of the development of professional knowledge and practice of teachers.
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