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With the onset of massive cosmological data collection through media such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), galaxy classification has been accomplished for the most part with the help of citizen science communities like Galaxy Zoo. Seeking the wisdom of the crowd for such Big Data processing has proved extremely beneficial. However, an analysis of one of the Galaxy Zoo morphological classification data sets has shown that a significant majority of all classified galaxies are labelled as "Uncertain".
This book reports on how to use data mining, more specifically clustering, to identify galaxies that the public has shown some degree of uncertainty for as to whether they belong to one morphology type or another. The book shows the importance of transitions between different data mining techniques in an insightful workflow. It demonstrates that Clustering enables to identify discriminating features in the analysed data sets, adopting a novel feature selection algorithms called Incremental Feature Selection (IFS). The book shows the use of state-of-the-art classification techniques, Random Forests and Support Vector Machines to validate the acquired results. It is concluded that a vast majority of these galaxies are, in fact, of spiral morphology with a small subset potentially consisting of stars, elliptical galaxies or galaxies of other morphological variants.
The millimetre and submillimetre spectral region (300 to 3000 Ilm or 1000 to 100 GHz) was until recently one of the few spectral regimes not fully opened up for astronomical studies. Thanks both to improvements in detectors and receivers and to the construction of large telescopes at high altitude sites this situation is improving very rapidly. Three major telescopes have been built recently and are coming into operation during 1987 and 1988, namely the 15m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and the lOAm Caltech Submillimetre Observatory (CSO) telescope, both located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and the 15 m Swedish -ESO telescope (SEST) in Chile. Because a very wide range of astronomical problems can be tackled with these major new facilities there is a great deal of interest from the many potential new users anxious to become familiar with this rapidly developing field. During 1986 it became clear to British and Dutch astronomers involved in planning the commissioning and operation of the JCMT, that a summer school in this field would greatly benefit the potential and actual JCMT user community. With financial support from the SERC and supplemented by a grant from the ZWO, the Summer School on 'Millimetre and Submillimetre Astronomy' was held at Stirling University from June 21 to 27, 1987.
This translation of A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR makes descriptions of the antennas and instrumentation used in the USSR, the astronomical discoveries, as well as interesting personal backgrounds of many of the early key players in Soviet radio astronomy available in the English language for the first time. This book is a collection of memoirs recounting an interesting but largely still dark era of Soviet astronomy. The arrangement of the essays is determined primarily by the time when radio astronomy studies began at the institutions involved. These include the Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Gorkii State University and the affiliated Physical-Technical Institute (GIFTI), Moscow State University Sternberg Astronomical institute (GAISH) and Space Research Institute (IKI), the Department of Radio Astronomy of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Pulkovo (GAO), Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO), Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine (SSR), Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences (IRE), Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere and Radio-Wave Propagation Institute (IZMIRAN), Siberian Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere and Radio-Wave Propagation (SibIZMIRAN), the Radio Astrophysical Observatory of the Latvian Academy of Sciences and Leningrad State University. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR is a fascinating source of information on a past era of scientific culture and fields of research including the Soviet SETI activities. Anyone interested in the recent history of science will enjoy reading this volume.
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