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The XIIlth General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, held in Prague from 22 to 31 August, 1967, brought together more than 1800 active astron- omers from 40 countries. The agenda of the Assembly ranged from administrative questions to highly intricate scientific problems. Thirty-eight Presidents of the IAU Commissions contributed by their reports to a detailed survey of Astronomy for the period 1964-67. These reports were published in the Transactions of the IAU, Volume XIIIA. Transactions volume XIIIB bring the results of the administrative meetings and of the meetings of Commissions held during the General Assembly. The present volume is devoted to the most important scientific results of the General Assembly as presented in the Invited Discourses, Joint Discussions, and at Special Meetings. It is an established policy of the Union to invite prominent astronomers to hold, during the General Assembly, formal discourses on topics of major importance due to recent significant developments. These Invited Discourses cover, as a rule, broad fields of astronomical interest and are meant to give basic information also to scien- tists from other branches. Subjects which call for a more detailed technical approach are dealt with in the Joint Discussions or at Special Meetings. Here, invited speakers present authoritative surveys complemented by communications on current or envisaged projects. The proceedings of two other meetings, on Moon Probes and on Coordination of Solar Observations Made at Ground-based Observatories and with Space Vehicles, are of a sufficiently wide interest to warrant the inclusion into this volume.
Riccardo Giacconi Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics The meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on January 28- 30, 1980, marks the coming of age of X-ray astronomy. In the 18 years since the discovery of the first extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-l, the field has experienced an extremely rapid instrumentation development culminating with the launch on November 13, 1978 of the Einstein ObÂ servatory (HEAO-2) which first introduced the use of high resolution imaging telescopes to the study of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. The Einstein Observatory instruments can detect sources as faint as 10-7 Sco X-lor about 17 magnitudes fainter. The technological developments in the field have been paralleled by a host of new discoveries: in the early 1960's the detection of 9 "X-ray stars", objects 10 times more luminous in X-rays than the Sun and among the brightest stellar objects at all wavelengths; in the late 1960's and early 1970's the discovery of the nature of such systems which were identified as collapsed stars (neutron stars and black holes) in mass exchange binary systems, and the detection of the first few extragalactic sources.
This book leads directly to the most modern numerical techniques for compressible fluid flow, with special consideration given to astrophysical applications. Emphasis is put on high-resolution shock-capturing finite-volume schemes based on Riemann solvers. The applications of such schemes, in particular the PPM method, are given and include large-scale simulations of supernova explosions by core collapse and thermonuclear burning and astrophysical jets. Parts two and three treat radiation hydrodynamics. The power of adaptive (moving) grids is demonstrated with a number of stellar-physical simulations showing very crispy shock-front structures.
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