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The primary inducement for organizing an international Conference on 'Image Processing Techniques in_Astronomy' was the fact that the recording microdensitometer VAMP ('Vol Automatische Micro Photometer') of the Utrecht Astronomical Institute was operative for a few years. The necessity of comparing the in- strument and its performance with similar instruments nowadays available at many other institutes, was stimulating enough to organize a meeting on the above subject. It took place in Utrecht on March 25, 26 and 27, 1975. The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of J. Borgman (Groningen), R.B. Dunn (Sacramento Peak), H. Elsasser (Heidelberg), L.D. de Feiter, T. de Groot, J.R.W. Heintze, C. de Jager, H. Nieuwenhuijzen (Utrecht) and W. Wiskott (Geneve). About 175 scientists from 14 countries participated in the meeting which appeared to be successful and offered a good opportunity of exchanging information and comparing experiences. The VAMP was bought with financial support of the Utrecht University and the Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research (Z.W.O.). The conference was organized with financial support from The Netherlands Ministry of Science and Education, The European Southern Observatory, The Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds, The Astronomical Institute of Utrecht, to which Institutes and Organisations we express our sincere gratitude. C. de Jager H. Nieuwenhuijzen editors PAR T WHAT INFORMATION DO WE NEED, FOR WHICH ASTRONOMICAL PROBLEM? ASTROMETRY K. Aa. Strand U. S. Naval Observatory Washington, D. C, INTRODUCTION Considerable progress has taken place in astrometry over the past two decades.
This book leads directly to the most modern numerical techniques for compressible fluid flow, with special consideration given to astrophysical applications. Emphasis is put on high-resolution shock-capturing finite-volume schemes based on Riemann solvers. The applications of such schemes, in particular the PPM method, are given and include large-scale simulations of supernova explosions by core collapse and thermonuclear burning and astrophysical jets. Parts two and three treat radiation hydrodynamics. The power of adaptive (moving) grids is demonstrated with a number of stellar-physical simulations showing very crispy shock-front structures.
1. 1. Short History of Solar Radio Astronomy Since its birth in the forties of our century, solar radio astronomy has grown into an extensive scientific branch comprising a number of quite different topics covering technical sciences, astrophysics, plasma physics, solar-terrestrial physics, and other disciplines. Historically, the story of radio astronomy goes back to the times of James Clerk Maxwell, whose well known phenomenological electromagnetic field equations have become the basis of present-time radio physics. As a direct consequence of these equations, Maxwell was able to prognosticate the existence of radio waves which fifteen years later were experimentally detected by the famous work of Heinrich Hertz (1887/88). However, all attempts to detect radio waves from cosmic objects failed until 1932, which was mainly due to the early stage of development of receiving techniques and the as yet missing knowledge of the existence of a screening ionosphere (which was detected in 1925). Therefore, famous inventors like Thomas Edison and A. E. Kennelly, as well as Sir Oliver Lodge, were unsuccessful in receiving any radio emission from the Sun or other extraterrestrial sources. Another hindering point was that nobody could a priori expect that solar radio emission should have something to do with solar activity so that unfortunately by chance some experiments were carried out just at periods of low solar activity. This was also why Karl Guthe Jansky at the birth of radio astronomy detected galactic radio waves but no emission from the Sun.
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